Press and Media

Ten Problems for Press and Media in the 2020s

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Literature Review: Press and Media Problems for the 2020s

2021 will be a year of profound and rapid digital change following the shock delivered by COVID-19. While many of us crave a return to ‘normal’, the reality is likely to be different as we emerge warily into a world where the physical and virtual coexist in new ways. This will also be a year of economic reshaping, with publishers leaning into subscription and e-commerce – two future-facing business models that have been supercharged by the pandemic [1].

Publicized number of COVID-19 infections are not significantly related to individual intentions to comply with the prescribed measures and intentions to engage in discretionary prosocial behaviors. Instead, psychological differences in terms of trust in government, citizens, and in particular toward science predicted individuals’ behavioral intentions across countries. The more people endorsed moral principles of fairness and care (vs. loyalty and authority), the more they were inclined to report trust in science, which, in turn, statistically predicted prescribed and discretionary behavioral intentions [2].

COVID-19 is a generation-defining pandemic, impacting families and communities in every country on the planet. In this report, we explore the consequences of the COVID crisis on journalism in developing economies and the Global South. These elements shine a spotlight on journalism outside of the Global North, in particular North America and Western Europe, to focus on areas where coverage of the journalism industry tends to be less well told or understood [3].

The way electorates were influenced to vote for the Brexit referendum, and in presidential elections both in Brazil and the USA, has accelerated a debate about whether and how machine learning techniques can influence citizens’ decisions. The access to balanced information is endangered if digital political manipulation can influence voters. The techniques of profiling and targeting on social media platforms can be used for advertising as well as for propaganda: Through tracking of a person’s online behavior, algorithms of social media platforms can create profiles of users [4].

This article integrates four positions on discourse and media as terrible facets of globalization in the context of critical discourse analysis [5]. The objectivist position deals with world issues as neutral discourse shared among humanity and distributed through English as an international language and educational media. The ideologist position treats creative media literacy as relations of power between global and local identities in the form of competing discourses associated with world issues. The rhetoric position reveals the hidden strategies used in global media discourse and English as a global language. The social constructionist position provides three levels of analysis for creative media literacy among university students: textual analysis, discourse analysis, and critical discourse analysis.

Starting from such general references, this booklet identifies ten relevant areas from very recent contributions put forward at academic level in the form journal articles, conference proceedings and students theses. Ten freely accessible internet references have been selected for each area and direct links are provided at the end of each chapter for own consultation. Our selected references do not intend to mirror ranking indexes nor establish novel classifications. On the contrary, they are meant to represent peer-reviewed, diverse and scientifically-sound case studies for vertical dissemination aimed at non-specialist readers. They will also be able to scoop even more references through the bibliography that is reported at the end of each selected reference.

Without further ado, these are the “Ten Problems for Press and Media in the 2020s” that we are going to introduce in this booklet:

  1. profitability, 
  2. subsidies,
  3. entertainment,
  4. artificial intelligence,
  5. disinformation,
  6. trust,
  7. diversity,
  8. regulation,
  9. staff issues,
  10. podcasts.

Each problem has its own dedicated chapter made of an introductory section, a short presentation of the ten selected references and a conclusions section.

The final chapter of this booklet will report the conclusions from each chapter again in order to provide a complete executive summary.


[1] N. Newman, “Journalism, Media, and Technology Trends and Predictions 2021”, 2021, Reuters Institure, University of Oxford, United Kingdom, online at

[2] S.Pagliaro et al., “Trust predicts COVID-19 prescribed and discretionary behavioral intentions in 23 countries”, 2021, PLoS ONE 16(3): e0248334, online at

[3] D. Radcliffe, “The impact of COVID-19 on journalism in Emerging Economies and the Global South”, 2021, THOMSON REUTERS FOUNDATION, online at

[4] U. Reisach, “The responsibility of social media in times of societal and political manipulation”, 2021, European Journal of Operational Research 291, 906–917, online at

[5] A. Nasr Hazaea, Abduljalil, “An Approach to Creative Media Literacy for World Issues”, 2021. Journal of Media Literacy Education Pre-Prints, Paper 1, online at

“Ten Problems for Press and Media in the 2020s” booklet for Amazon Kindle, 2020; click on the cover to go to the dedicated Amazon listing page media access control, virgin media, media expert, vlc media player, unity media

booklet updated on 5 May 2021, now on sale as version 1.1 

By TenProblems

Literature Reviews for Inquisitive Minds