Ten Problems for Justice in the 2020s

Booklet updated on 4 Dec 2022, now on sale as version 2.0

Tailored content can be provided upon request. Submit your technical specification through the contact form in the About page at and get your quote.

Literature Review: Justice Problems for the 2020s

The range of factors associated with criminality means that success in  preventing reoffending and supporting offenders is dependent on targeting a broad range of needs [1]. This is all the more important as many factors will be interrelated. For example, in the UK, there is a significant association between drug dependency, particularly heroin, and homelessness. There are also significant overlaps between both these issues and poor mental health. Effective rehabilitation is therefore dependent on addressing several factors, in an integrated way.

Organizational Justice is an individual’s perception that events, actions, or decisions within an organization adhere to a standard of fairness. Organizational justice scholarship explores the connections between organizational stakeholders’ perceptions of fairness and their attitudes and actions. Justice researchers have categorized justice into four types, differentiated by how fairness is evaluated by employees: distributive, procedural, interpersonal, and informational justice. Contemporary organizational justice research seeks to understand how to restore justice after an injustice has occurred [2].

The corona crisis has intensified the situation, where smallholder farmers have been hit hard by locked down markets and broken food systems. For the first time in decades, poverty is increasing. To top this off, the war in Ukraine is driving record high food prices and increasing global hunger. This is the time to stand up for a strong and stable international official development assistance. And to make sure climate finance reaches those who need it most, especially smallholder farmers, and particularly women and children. Climate justice is about all people’s equal right to food [3].

Starting from such general references, this booklet identifies ten relevant issues, as put forward at academic level in the form of recent journal articles, conference proceedings or students’ theses. Four freely accessible internet references have been selected for each issue and direct links are provided at the end of each chapter for own consultation. Our references neither intend to mirror ranking indexes nor establish novel classifications. On the contrary, they are meant to represent peer-reviewed, scientificallysound case studies for dissemination aimed at non-specialist readers. They will also offer even more references through their own bibliography list.

Without further ado, these are the “Ten Problems for Justice in the 2020s” that we are going to introduce in this booklet: 

  1. inequalities,
  2. recidivism, 
  3. financial, 
  4. drugs, 
  5. environmental, 
  6. violence, 
  7. family, 
  8. affordability,
  9. artificial intelligence, 
  10. diversity. 

Each problem has its own dedicated chapter made of an introduction, a snippet from the 1st edition of this booklet, a short presentation of four new case studies, a conclusions section and the references list with links.

The final chapter of this booklet will report the conclusions from each chapter, again, in order to provide a complete executive summary.


[1] W. Hughes, “Multi-stakeholder Approaches for Effective Supervision and. Support of Offenders”, 2022, United Nations Asia and Far East Institute for the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders, Resource Material No.114, online at

[2] J. Wiseman, “Organizational Justice: Typology, Antecedents and Consequences”, 2022, Encyclopedia, 2, 1287–1295, online at

[3] K. Johansson et al., “Climate justice”, 2022, Vi Agroforestry and We Effect, Stockholm, Sweden, online at

“Ten Problems for Justice in the 2020s” booklet for Amazon Kindle, 2022; click on the cover to go to the dedicated Amazon listing page public law, law and order svu, legal and general, legal aids, legal

By TenProblems

Literature Reviews for Inquisitive Minds