Agriculture problem: Developing Countries

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Literature review: Developing Countries problem for Agriculture

The “Ten Problems for Agriculture in the 2020s” booklet identifies ten relevant areas from very recent contributions put forward at academic level in the form of journal articles, conference proceedings and students theses. Ten freely accessible internet references have been selected for each area and direct links are provided at the end of each chapter for own consultation. Our selected references do not intend to mirror ranking indexes nor establish novel classifications. On the contrary, they are meant to represent peer-reviewed, diverse and scientifically-sound case studies for vertical dissemination aimed at non-specialist readers. They will also be able to scoop even more references through the bibliography that is reported at the end of each selected reference.

Without further ado, these are the ten problems that we are going to introduce in this booklet:

  1. climate change, 
  2. precision agriculture,
  3. crop planning,
  4. climate-smart,
  5. soil ecosystem,
  6. entrepreneurship,
  7. competitiveness,
  8. sustainability,
  9. developing countries,
  10. biological control.

Each problem has its own dedicated chapter made of an introductory section, a short presentation of the ten selected references and a conclusions section.

The final chapter of this booklet will report the conclusions from each chapter again in order to provide a complete executive summary.

9 Developing Countries

THE PROBLEM – A United Nations recent report states that hunger was on the rise in 2019, in particular in Africa, Latin America and Western Asia. In spite of global effort at supranational level, ambitious targets for 2030 like the “Leave no one behind” will not be met. Economic shocks and downturns also affect disproportionately the food security of middle-income countries relying upon primary commodities trade, in particular women. Local issues are nuanced but global trends are clear and alarming.

CASE STUDIES — … buy this booklet from Amazon …

CONCLUSIONS — Two billion people in the world experience moderate or severe food insecurity, while economists have developed four indicators to quantify the anti-agricultural bias concept. The role of women in agriculture is linked to the impact of large agricultural investment on gender equality in developing countries. Only 4% of Indian households are covered by crop insurance versus 86% in the United States, with African farmers similarly at the mercy of rainfall and temperature patterns: agriculture accounted for more than 70% of total employment in Lao PDR and close to 50% in Bangladesh in 2010. Farm income in Kenya accounted for 60% of the total household income in 2004 and 70% in Uganda and Mozambique in mid 2000s. Vulnerability to climate change is particularly high in Africa where agricultural production is the primary source of livelihoods for 66% of the total active population. Civil conflicts have also long been associated with food insecurity in the developing world, and the advances towards the achievement of United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals will be jeopardized by the COVID-19 pandemic. The role of computer literacy is increasing as more sectors of agriculture rely on computing technology and the Internet of Things is becoming really attractive for several sensor-based applications that provide large coverage of services with small amount of resources.

TEN FREE REFERENCES FROM THE INTERNET — … buy this booklet from Amazon …

“Ten Problems for Agriculture in the 2020s” booklet for Amazon Kindle, 2020; click on the cover to go to the dedicated Amazon listing page

booklet updated on 5 Dec 2020, now on sale as version 1.1

By TenProblems

Literature Reviews for Inquisitive Minds