Artificial Intelligence

Artificial Intelligence problem: Human Intervention

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Literature Review: Human Intervention problem for Artificial Intelligence

This “Ten Problems for Artificial Intelligence in the 2020s” booklet identifies ten relevant areas from very recent contributions put forward at academic level in the form journal articles, conference proceedings and students theses. Ten freely accessible internet references have been selected for each area and direct links are provided at the end of each chapter for own consultation. Our selected references do not intend to mirror ranking indexes nor establish novel classifications. On the contrary, they are meant to represent peer-reviewed, diverse and scientifically-sound case studies for vertical dissemination aimed at non-specialist readers. They will also be able to scoop even more references through the bibliography that is reported at the end of each selected reference.

Without further ado, these are the ten problems that we are going to introduce in this booklet:

  1. computer games, 
  2. intelligent optimization,
  3. accountability,
  4. human intervention,
  5. ethical issues,
  6. bias,
  7. interpretability,
  8. software development,
  9. open source,
  10. operations research.

Each problem has its own dedicated chapter made of an introductory section, a short presentation of the ten selected references and a conclusions section.

The final chapter of this booklet will report the conclusions from each chapter again in order to provide a complete executive summary.

4 Human Intervetion

THE PROBLEM — How the natural cognitive intelligence in a human could interface with the artificial cognitive intelligence of a machine? Institutional, organizational, and technological approaches have different targets for reducing the human intervention but all now require some sort of contestability by design to cope with legal issues. Allowing machines to make decisions that will impact human lives, without human intervention, is a matter in need of general guidelines and case-by-case implementation.

CASE STUDIES — … buy this booklet from Amazon …

CONCLUSIONS — A complex data analysis process involves many individual steps which may not be automatically connectable but requires human intervention. AI is impacting and shaping the future of living and cities, but it is still cutting-edge, even if incipient in nature. Leveraging AI within pharmaceutical 3D printing could remove the need for human expertise. Most real-world applications require training AI solutions that are safe to operate as catastrophic failures are inadmissible especially when there is human interaction involved. Should intervention be restricted to those decisions with no human involvement and what are the practical limitations of this right to intervention? As an example, autonomous data management without human involvement offers great opportunities for banks. Artificial intelligence models match or exceed dermatologists in melanoma image classification, but less is known about their robustness against real-world variations. Automated news can affect the application of intellectual property and copyright law in many ways. Holistic views of an artificially intelligent vehicle are still debated because of the high number of multidisciplinary issues involved. Despite the potential risks inherent with adopting AI in nuclear systems, many of the potential benefits to both deterrence and arms control have been overlooked or ignored.

TEN FREE REFERENCES FROM THE INTERNET — … buy this booklet from Amazon …

“Ten Problems for Artificial Intelligence in the 2020s” booklet for Amazon Kindle, 2020; click on the cover to go to the dedicated Amazon listing page

booklet updated on 19 Jun 2021, now on sale as version 1.2

By TenProblems

Literature Reviews for Inquisitive Minds