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Climate

Climate problem: Effects

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Literature review: Effects problem for Climate

The “Ten Problems for Climate in the 2020s” booklet identifies ten relevant areas from very recent contributions put forward at academic level in the form journal articles, conference proceedings and students theses. Ten freely accessible internet references have been selected for each area and direct links are provided at the end of each chapter for own consultation. Our selected references do not intend to mirror ranking indexes nor establish novel classifications. On the contrary, they are meant to represent peer-reviewed, diverse and scientifically-sound case studies for vertical dissemination aimed at non-specialist readers. They will also be able to scoop even more references through the bibliography that is reported at the end of each selected reference.

Without further ado, these are the ten problems that we are going to introduce in this booklet:

  1. energy policies, 
  2. effects,
  3. machine learning,
  4. communication,
  5. non-state actors,
  6. social sciences,
  7. green infrastructures,
  8. mitigation,
  9. regional environments,
  10. economics.

Each problem has its own dedicated chapter made of an introductory section, a short presentation of the ten selected references and a conclusions section.

The final chapter of this booklet will report the conclusions from each chapter again in order to provide a complete executive summary.


2 Effects

THE PROBLEM — Climate change increasingly affects people’s health and well-being, as do other global environmental changes such as loss of biodiversity. It will have devastating consequences for people in poverty. Global warming produces effects that are measurable through physical indicators such as rising sea levels, increased heat content of the oceans, decreased snow and ice surface coverage, and increased frequency of very hot days and of very intense rains. Proposals from governments and observer organizations are being implemented to attempt mitigation of greenhouse gases emissions and remedial actions, but the COVID-19 pandemic is putting such efforts on hold.

CASE STUDIES — … buy this booklet from Amazon …

CONCLUSIONS — The latest estimates suggest that the direct effect of the response to the pandemic on climate change will be negligible. Climate change is increasing the frequency and intensity of heatwaves, droughts, extreme rainfall and severe cyclones in many areas. Even under the best-case scenario, hundreds of million people will face food insecurity, forced migration, disease, and death. These climate modifications put the environment and human activities under strong pressure with a resulting need for designing new adaptation and mitigation strategies. Greenhouse gas fluxes are addressed in land-based ecosystems, land use and sustainable land management in relation to climate change adaptation and mitigation, desertification, land degradation and food security. Understanding effects of climate change on aquatic ecosystems and their function is thus of high importance. Urban adaptation could drive one of the largest infrastructural build-outs in history. All the cities tend to shift towards the sub-tropics, with cities from the Northern hemisphere shifting to warmer conditions, on average and cities from the tropics shifting to drier conditions. Risk to coastal geographies at the end of century is estimated to be very high for urban atoll islands, high for Arctic communities, moderate for large tropical agricultural deltas and megacities. The many countries that currently have high levels of nutrient deficiency would continue to be disproportionately affected. At military level, governments are also investing in research to understand environmental risks to installations and missions.

TEN FREE REFERENCES FROM THE INTERNET — … buy this booklet from Amazon …


Climate
“Ten Problems for Climate in the 2020s” booklet for Amazon Kindle, 2020; click on the cover to go to the dedicated Amazon listing page

booklet updated on 13 Dec 2020, now on sale as version 1.1

By TenProblems

Literature Reviews for Inquisitive Minds