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Literature review: Non-State Actors problem for Climate
The “Ten Problems for Climate in the 2020s” booklet identifies ten relevant areas from very recent contributions put forward at academic level in the form journal articles, conference proceedings and students theses. Ten freely accessible internet references have been selected for each area and direct links are provided at the end of each chapter for own consultation. Our selected references do not intend to mirror ranking indexes nor establish novel classifications. On the contrary, they are meant to represent peer-reviewed, diverse and scientifically-sound case studies for vertical dissemination aimed at non-specialist readers. They will also be able to scoop even more references through the bibliography that is reported at the end of each selected reference.
Without further ado, these are the ten problems that we are going to introduce in this booklet:
- energy policies,
- machine learning,
- non-state actors,
- social sciences,
- green infrastructures,
- regional environments,
Each problem has its own dedicated chapter made of an introductory section, a short presentation of the ten selected references and a conclusions section.
The final chapter of this booklet will report the conclusions from each chapter again in order to provide a complete executive summary.
5 Non-State Actors
THE PROBLEM — Sub-national administrations and non-governmental organizations partner with governments for climate policy, often under multi-level joint programmes with governance risk-reduction strategies. In more authoritarian contexts, unorthodox government-organized, non-governmental organizations are also active. At national level, different levels of the discourse prevail, with predictive uncertainty and programmes financing being common issues. In general, adaptation strategies are not sufficient yet to address the future risks of climate change.
CASE STUDIES — … buy this booklet from Amazon …
CONCLUSIONS — Sub-national governments have a vital role to play in informing and helping to shape international climate action but cross-level power imbalances shape communication and collaboration across multiple levels of governance. Immense discrepancies between political commitments and governmental action remain. Non-governmental organizations operate in the increasingly blurred lines between state and civil society sectors, in developing and developed contexts globally. Liberal environmentalism retains a strong hold over the political imagination in the post-Paris Agreement landscape. Communicating about uncertainty associated with climate change is a trade-off between precision and accuracy. Transnational actors can make up for these deficits under a functionalist assumption. Decentralization increases the importance of national stakeholders in climate negotiations. The main change appears to be the use of a more politically ‘neutral’ framing of climate change that is directed more strongly at state than non-state actors. Climate change litigation continues to expand across jurisdictions as another tool to strengthen climate action.
TEN FREE REFERENCES FROM THE INTERNET — … buy this booklet from Amazon …
booklet updated on 13 Dec 2020, now on sale as version 1.1