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Climate

Climate problem: Regional Environments

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Literature review: Regional Environments problem for Climate

The “Ten Problems for Climate in the 2020s” booklet identifies ten relevant areas from very recent contributions put forward at academic level in the form journal articles, conference proceedings and students theses. Ten freely accessible internet references have been selected for each area and direct links are provided at the end of each chapter for own consultation. Our selected references do not intend to mirror ranking indexes nor establish novel classifications. On the contrary, they are meant to represent peer-reviewed, diverse and scientifically-sound case studies for vertical dissemination aimed at non-specialist readers. They will also be able to scoop even more references through the bibliography that is reported at the end of each selected reference.

Without further ado, these are the ten problems that we are going to introduce in this booklet:

  1. energy policies, 
  2. effects,
  3. machine learning,
  4. communication,
  5. non-state actors,
  6. social sciences,
  7. green infrastructures,
  8. mitigation,
  9. regional environments,
  10. economics.

Each problem has its own dedicated chapter made of an introductory section, a short presentation of the ten selected references and a conclusions section.

The final chapter of this booklet will report the conclusions from each chapter again in order to provide a complete executive summary.


9 Regional Environments

THE PROBLEM — There is overwhelming evidence that the Earth has warmed during the Industrial Era and that the main cause of this warming is human influence. Widespread warming is consistent with the observed increase in atmospheric water vapor and with declines in snow and ice cover. The current and expected effects of climate change, though, will differ locally, nationally and regionally. Mediterranean-type climate regions, Egypt, Canada, small island in the Pacific, India, Croatia and the Arctic region, among others, will suffer extensively. Relevant effects will also impact plant ecosystems, forests and animals.

CASE STUDIES — … buy this booklet from Amazon …

CONCLUSIONS — All Mediterranean-type climate regions, except in North America, have dried and the models project further drying over coming decades. A question that is being widely debated is what globalization will look like in a post-pandemic world, and the role of a new regionalism. Both past and future warming in Canada is, on average, about double the magnitude of global warming. Mainstreaming climate change across programmes and within organizations stands out as practically relevant to support stronger action on climate change in regional environments such as Pacific Islands. India is missing the concept of integrated water environment, with overlapping of policies and schemes that make sustainability very limited. Climate risks for Croatia in the near future will have the strongest repercussions on agriculture and electricity supply sectors. The European Union is at risk of missing the opportunity to be a leader in setting standards for a coherent and sustainable approach for the Arctic region. Biological invasions by invasive alien species represents one of the main anthropogenic drivers of global environmental change everywhere. Adaptive forest management includes a large variety of silvicultural measures presenting the risk of being rejected in Romania by a part of society for which climate change adaption should be a natural process. Global warming has not systematically affected morphological traits of animals, but has advanced phenological traits that are adaptive for only some species.

TEN FREE REFERENCES FROM THE INTERNET — … buy this booklet from Amazon …


Climate
“Ten Problems for Climate in the 2020s” booklet for Amazon Kindle, 2020; click on the cover to go to the dedicated Amazon listing page

booklet updated on 13 Dec 2020, now on sale as version 1.1

By TenProblems

Literature Reviews for Inquisitive Minds