Arts problem: Authentication

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Literature review: Authentication problem for Arts

This “Ten Problems for Arts in the 2020s” booklet identifies ten relevant areas from very recent contributions put forward at academic level in the form journal articles, conference proceedings and students theses. Ten freely accessible internet references have been selected for each area and direct links are provided at the end of each chapter for own consultation. Our selected references do not intend to mirror ranking indexes nor establish novel classifications. On the contrary, they are meant to represent peer-reviewed, diverse and scientifically-sound case studies for vertical dissemination aimed at non-specialist readers. They will also be able to scoop even more references through the bibliography that is reported at the end of each selected reference.

Without further ado, these are the ten problems that we are going to introduce in this booklet:

  1. education, 
  2. authentication,
  3. participation,
  4. entrepreneurship,
  5. aesthetics,
  6. creativity,
  7. technology,
  8. environment,
  9. science,
  10. regulation.

Each problem has its own dedicated chapter made of an introductory section, a short presentation of the ten selected references and a conclusions section.

The final chapter of this booklet will report the conclusions from each chapter again in order to provide a complete executive summary.

2 Authentication

THE PROBLEM — The art market has several characteristics that favor manipulation, such as lack of transparency and conflicts of interest. Scientific approaches to art forgery provide the rigorous methodology by which claims made about a work can be tested. Conventions of quality allow to reduce the uncertainty that often arises around objects concerning their value in different markets. Public law enforcement is imperfect, though, and court cases often are deemed problematic. Written works such as fiction, poetry or song lyrics pose different challenges, with linguistic data of the kind needed to assign disputed texts to their real authors. As for digital images, it is essential to improve the robustness of tampered image detection algorithms. Machine learning and deep learning techniques are proving useful to detect forgery or disputable attribution.

CASE STUDIES — … buy this booklet from Amazon …

CONCLUSIONS — Competition law enforcement in the art market has been scarce so far. Scientific instrumentation is available for the analysis of artwork but data are only useful when assessed against existing secure points of identification. Conventions of quality and other resources must be mobilized to authenticate objects relying on sensed experience. Radiocarbon dating delivers absolute ages with a definite time frame for the materials used in painting. When the financial stakes rise, opportunistic behavior undermines the credibility of private governance. For written works, stylometric authorship systems based on morphological patterns and letter mapping properties can be used and it was observed that Naïve Bayes method provides high accuracy. With the advances of image editing techniques, low-cost tampered or manipulated image generation processes have become widely available; algorithmic understanding of recognition and extraction of features can be attempted using deep convolutional neural networks. In the music sector, problems regarding transparency and payments throughout the value chain still persist but it is being suggested not to invest in applications involving cryptocurrencies in the short-term.

TEN FREE REFERENCES FROM THE INTERNET — … buy this booklet from Amazon …

“Ten Problems for Arts in the 2020s” booklet for Amazon Kindle, 2020; click on the cover to go to the dedicated Amazon listing page

By TenProblems

Literature Reviews for Inquisitive Minds