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Literature review: Funding problem for Education
This “Ten Problems for Education in the 2020s” booklet identifies ten relevant areas from very recent contributions put forward at academic level in the form journal articles, conference proceedings and students theses. Ten freely accessible internet references have been selected for each area and direct links are provided at the end of each chapter for own consultation. Our selected references do not intend to mirror ranking indexes nor establish novel classifications. On the contrary, they are meant to represent peer-reviewed, diverse and scientifically-sound case studies for vertical dissemination aimed at non-specialist readers. They will also be able to scoop even more references through the bibliography that is reported at the end of each selected reference.
Without further ado, these are the ten problems that we are going to introduce in this booklet:
- lifelong learning,
- new trends.
Each problem has its own dedicated chapter made of an introductory section, a short presentation of the ten selected references and a conclusions section.
The final chapter of this booklet will report the conclusions from each chapter again in order to provide a complete executive summary.
THE PROBLEM — The importance of methods and forms of education funding to institutions, depending on ownership forms, must be substantiated. How should resources be invested to achieve high-quality education in ways that redress the effects of inequities and historical discrimination?
CASE STUDIES — … buy this booklet from Amazon …
CONCLUSIONS — In Europe, an increase in the consolidated budget expenditure on education by 1% results in an increase in the Gross Domestic Product by 1.02%. The COVID-19 pandemic has pushed universities in different nations such as in developing African countries beyond their limits. The impacts of the COVID-19 declining tax revenue on the financing of public basic education schools can considerably worsen inequalities in the conditions of education supply. Performance-based funding is also quite common in Australia, Canada, and many European countries but its impact on student outcomes are often weak. In the United States, students in low-wealth districts, who are frequently students from low-income families, typically have the fewest resources. In the COVID-19 world of education, efficiency and effectiveness tends to be characterized by a pattern of distribution and utilization of educational resources that have been arranged efficiently with effective management. Many international students, especially those with graduate degrees, stay on in the host country after graduation. In India, there are a number of important nuances within the economic perspective of education and the return on investment for the many disadvantaged parts of its population. That also applies to China, with many poor students in a critical period from the popularization and the diffusion of higher education.
TEN FREE REFERENCES FROM THE INTERNET — … buy this booklet from Amazon …
booklet updated on 26 Jan 2021, now on sale as version 1.1