Economy problem: Debt

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Literature Review: Debt problem for Economy

This “Ten Problems for Economy in the 2020s” booklet identifies ten relevant areas from very recent contributions put forward at academic level in the form journal articles, conference proceedings and students theses. Ten freely accessible internet references have been selected for each area and direct links are provided at the end of each chapter for own consultation. Our selected references do not intend to mirror ranking indexes nor establish novel classifications. On the contrary, they are meant to represent peer-reviewed, diverse and scientifically-sound case studies for vertical dissemination aimed at non-specialist readers. They will also be able to scoop even more references through the bibliography that is reported at the end of each selected reference.

Without further ado, these are the ten problems that we are going to introduce in this booklet:

  1. business, 
  2. finance,
  3. policies,
  4. technology,
  5. debt,
  6. labor,
  7. entrepreneurship,
  8. markets,
  9. wealth,
  10. growth.

Each problem has its own dedicated chapter made of an introductory section, a short presentation of the ten selected references and a conclusions section.

The final chapter of this booklet will report the conclusions from each chapter again in order to provide a complete executive summary.

5 Debt

THE PROBLEM — Because credit creates both spending power and debt, whether or not more credit is desirable depends on whether the borrowed money is used productively enough to generate sufficient income to service the debt. Slower growth may contribute to a renewed rise in debt ratios. Understanding how exporting small and medium enterprises cope with financing needs may also yield useful insights. Financial debt is also relevant to ordinary, vulnerable people, professionals and to organizations again, in the form of technical debt or distance from the best practices available.

CASE STUDIES — … buy this booklet from Amazon …

CONCLUSIONS — The COVID-19 pandemic and its economic effects have triggered a global sovereign borrowing boom that is almost unparalleled in history. Debt sustainability does not easily translate into operational concepts and indicators. Many mature economies have seen debt ratios fall over the past year, notably in the European Union, but others still taking on more debt. The policy response to COVID-19 has triggered a backlog of insolvencies in Germany that is particularly pronounced among financially weak, small firms. An increase in government debt supply might reduce investors’ demand for corporate debt relative to equity since government debt is a better substitute for corporate debt than for equity. Small and medium-sized enterprises exporters have to finance relatively more working capital than their non-exporting peers and they resolve this financing need by carrying more short-term financial debt. In the United States, there is growing concern about increases in financial debt held by people as they enter their retirement years. The aggregate demand and labor demand shocks caused by the COVID-19 pandemic posed serious challenges to the sustainable development of the Chinese economy and debt. A statistically significant positive and strong correlation between the technical debt and the vulnerability densities of a number of open-source software products was found. Distributed ledgers and blockchain-based structures might be applied to structural economic problems such as debt, systemic risk, technological job outsourcing, entitlements overhang, healthcare, and financial inclusion.

TEN FREE REFERENCES FROM THE INTERNET — … buy this booklet from Amazon …

“Ten Problems for Economy in the 2020s” booklet for Amazon Kindle, 2020; click on the cover to go to the dedicated Amazon listing page

booklet updated on 30 Mar 2021, now on sale as version 1.1

By TenProblems

Literature Reviews for Inquisitive Minds