Press and Media

Press and Media problem: Disinformation

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Literature Review: Disinformation problem for Press and Media

This “Ten Problems for Press and Media in the 2020s” booklet identifies ten relevant areas from very recent contributions put forward at academic level in the form journal articles, conference proceedings and students theses. Ten freely accessible internet references have been selected for each area and direct links are provided at the end of each chapter for own consultation. Our selected references do not intend to mirror ranking indexes nor establish novel classifications. On the contrary, they are meant to represent peer-reviewed, diverse and scientifically-sound case studies for vertical dissemination aimed at non-specialist readers. They will also be able to scoop even more references through the bibliography that is reported at the end of each selected reference.

Without further ado, these are the ten problems that we are going to introduce in this booklet:

  1. profitability, 
  2. subsidies,
  3. entertainment,
  4. artificial intelligence,
  5. disinformation,
  6. trust,
  7. diversity,
  8. regulation,
  9. staff issues,
  10. podcasts.

Each problem has its own dedicated chapter made of an introductory section, a short presentation of the ten selected references and a conclusions section.

The final chapter of this booklet will report the conclusions from each chapter again in order to provide a complete executive summary.

5 Disinformation

THE PROBLEM — Efforts to fight the spread of disinformation have had mixed results. Competitive interference within the politics of third actors as well as targeting their and own national public opinion is widespread. The role of soft facts like rumors, conspiracy theories, fake news, propaganda in influencing public understandings and definitions of the situation is still under scrutiny. Social media users often lack awareness of the intentional manipulation of online content. Disinformation warfare poses a big threat to the safety and the security of citizens and states.

CASE STUDIES — … buy this booklet from Amazon …

CONCLUSIONS — Online disinformation or fake news is deliberately false or misleading material, often masquerading as news content, which is designed to attract attention and exert influence through online channels. An initiator state can seek to instigate regime evolution in a nation state target in a direction exhibiting polarization. Three digital influence engineering techniques: spoofing, truthing and social proofing, are associated with the communication of misinformation and disinformation. In an increasingly polarized world where social media and the internet have pushed people to live inside “echo chambers” and “filter bubbles,” people consciously and unconsciously are exposed only to content that reinforce their confirmation bias. Communities of color, suffering equity gaps and disproportionate COVID-19 effects, also must resist ongoing disinformation campaigns designed to impede their political influence. Different topics, regions, platforms, and approaches highlight both the complexity of studying mis/disinformation and the context-specific nature of the phenomenon. Tools, capacities, strategies, and resources used to manipulate public opinion around the globe are evolving in the COVID-19 infosphere. A course or workbook to cope with the Age of Disinformation would involve ten different lessons. Fear-arousing disinformation, as in a crisis from the spread of a health virus, does not make people believe the disinformation under risky situations. The hostile context of the press combined with false rumors often leads to a waste of time, money and reputation.

TEN FREE REFERENCES FROM THE INTERNET — … buy this booklet from Amazon …

“Ten Problems for Press and Media in the 2020s” booklet for Amazon Kindle, 2020; click on the cover to go to the dedicated Amazon listing page 

booklet updated on 5 May 2021, now on sale as version 1.1 

By TenProblems

Literature Reviews for Inquisitive Minds