Press and Media

Press and Media problem: Subsidies

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Literature Review: Subsidies problem for Press and Media

This “Ten Problems for Press and Media in the 2020s” booklet identifies ten relevant areas from very recent contributions put forward at academic level in the form journal articles, conference proceedings and students theses. Ten freely accessible internet references have been selected for each area and direct links are provided at the end of each chapter for own consultation. Our selected references do not intend to mirror ranking indexes nor establish novel classifications. On the contrary, they are meant to represent peer-reviewed, diverse and scientifically-sound case studies for vertical dissemination aimed at non-specialist readers. They will also be able to scoop even more references through the bibliography that is reported at the end of each selected reference.

Without further ado, these are the ten problems that we are going to introduce in this booklet:

  1. profitability, 
  2. subsidies,
  3. entertainment,
  4. artificial intelligence,
  5. disinformation,
  6. trust,
  7. diversity,
  8. regulation,
  9. staff issues,
  10. podcasts.

Each problem has its own dedicated chapter made of an introductory section, a short presentation of the ten selected references and a conclusions section.

The final chapter of this booklet will report the conclusions from each chapter again in order to provide a complete executive summary.

2 Subsidies

THE PROBLEM — Journalism is stepping closer to both the market and the state to compensate the loss of traditional revenues. State-supported journalism is synonymous with public-interest journalism. If the press can’t fulfill its obligation to serve society, could the government intervene with subsidies to ensure that it does? Traditional journalists fear the weakening of professional norms or the news media’s credibility. European news agencies are struggling to keep their basic news services profitable, especially in small markets. Government funding, combined with diminished advertising revenue, undermines the media independence, though.

CASE STUDIES — … buy this booklet from Amazon

CONCLUSIONS — Public support to local media should be targeted and flexible, addressing specific strategies without being limited to financial resources. Promoting state-supported journalism may be justified on economic grounds, but less so on political ones when considering the strong sentiments against it. When asked to imagine the government as a source of newspaper revenue, the journalists are fearful that subsidies could compromise their watchdog role. The citizen media business model is a fully participatory business model. Media policy makers are looking for safeguards for freedom of expression other than statutory guarantees. In the age of fake news and disinformation, the social and democratic value of news services is much greater than their economic value to their owners. During 2020 and because of the COVID-19 pandemic, especially in Europe many media have decided to implement paywalls. State aid for film in Europe stresses film as both a cultural and an economic good in a modern democracy. In more repressive countries, direct and indirect funding from the government is a main source of income. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the BBC has not been alone in experiencing an uptick in appreciation and audience.

TEN FREE REFERENCES FROM THE INTERNET — … buy this booklet from Amazon

“Ten Problems for Press and Media in the 2020s” booklet for Amazon Kindle, 2020; click on the cover to go to the dedicated Amazon listing page 

booklet updated on 5 May 2021, now on sale as version 1.1 

By TenProblems

Literature Reviews for Inquisitive Minds