Justice problem: Artificial Intelligence

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Literature Review: Artificial Intelligence problem for Justice

This “Ten Problems for Justice in the 2020s” booklet identifies ten relevant areas from very recent contributions put forward at academic level in the form journal articles, conference proceedings and students theses. Ten freely accessible internet references have been selected for each area and direct links are provided at the end of each chapter for own consultation. Our selected references do not intend to mirror ranking indexes nor establish novel classifications. On the contrary, they are meant to represent peer-reviewed, diverse and scientifically-sound case studies for vertical dissemination aimed at non-specialist readers. They will also be able to scoop even more references through the bibliography that is reported at the end of each selected reference.

Without further ado, these are the ten problems that we are going to introduce in this booklet:

  1. policies, 
  2. criminal,
  3. financial,
  4. drugs,
  5. environmental,
  6. violence,
  7. family,
  8. open access,
  9. artificial intelligence,
  10. diversity.

Each problem has its own dedicated chapter made of an introductory section, a short presentation of the ten selected references and a conclusions section.

The final chapter of this booklet will report the conclusions from each chapter again in order to provide a complete executive summary.

9 Artificial Intelligence

THE PROBLEM — At its heart, Artificial Intelligence and law involves the application of computer and mathematical techniques to make law more understandable, manageable, useful, accessible, or predictable. The use of Artificial Intelligence in the court proceedings could make the whole reasoning of the decisions and implementations less transparent, with an impact on individual freedoms. The great diversity of Artificial Intelligence techniques and the wide variety of uses make global legal regulation difficult.

CASE STUDIES — … buy this booklet from Amazon …

CONCLUSIONS — One useful way of thinking about the use of Artificial Intelligence within law today is to conceptually divide it into three categories of users: the administrators of law, the practitioners of law, and those who are governed by law. From the current development stage, artificial intelligence is still in the primary stage of “weak artificial intelligence” and no robot judges are expected right now. However, the use of Artificial Intelligence systems in the court proceedings could harm the independency of the judiciary and the impartiality of the process. The extent to which camera-based systems will make recommendations on the basis of algorithmic assessments of probable cause or reasonable suspicion is something yet to be decided. Artificial Intelligence tools raise four main categories of challenges that are particularly critical in the field of criminal justice, because of their potential impact on individual freedoms: ethics, effectiveness, procurement, and appropriation. The best way is to endow Artificial Intelligence with a specific “limited” legal personality through the application of legal fiction, the responsibility to bear responsibility for the harm and negative consequences. The feasibility of applying big data architectures and analytic techniques in conjunction with machine learning to legal decision-making for patent attribution is still under evaluation. Ethical inquiries involving a wide range of stakeholders across an array of criminal justice and health contexts are needed. In autonomous driving, the responsible entity for the actual driving software will bare most of the responsibility.

TEN FREE REFERENCES FROM THE INTERNET — … buy this booklet from Amazon …

“Ten Problems for Justice in the 2020s” booklet for Amazon Kindle, 2020; click on the cover to go to the dedicated Amazon listing page

By TenProblems

Literature Reviews for Inquisitive Minds