Justice problem: Criminal

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Literature Review: Criminal problem for Justice

This “Ten Problems for Justice in the 2020s” booklet identifies ten relevant areas from very recent contributions put forward at academic level in the form journal articles, conference proceedings and students theses. Ten freely accessible internet references have been selected for each area and direct links are provided at the end of each chapter for own consultation. Our selected references do not intend to mirror ranking indexes nor establish novel classifications. On the contrary, they are meant to represent peer-reviewed, diverse and scientifically-sound case studies for vertical dissemination aimed at non-specialist readers. They will also be able to scoop even more references through the bibliography that is reported at the end of each selected reference.

Without further ado, these are the ten problems that we are going to introduce in this booklet:

  1. policies, 
  2. criminal,
  3. financial,
  4. drugs,
  5. environmental,
  6. violence,
  7. family,
  8. open access,
  9. artificial intelligence,
  10. diversity.

Each problem has its own dedicated chapter made of an introductory section, a short presentation of the ten selected references and a conclusions section.

The final chapter of this booklet will report the conclusions from each chapter again in order to provide a complete executive summary.

2 Criminal

THE PROBLEM — For criminals, it is necessary to have the skills to find a suitable job after returning to society. White collar criminals arise from uncertain ethical practices of corporations, while cybercriminals commit or support criminal acts in a digital world. Refugees that come to the European Union are not posing an increased risk of terrorism but they are prone to radicalization. The treatment of mentally ill, minorities and elderly offenders is also cause of debate and often concern even in Western democracies.

CASE STUDIES — … buy this booklet from Amazon …

CONCLUSIONS — While technical education gives criminals a skill and a source of economic life, it also allows criminals to regain their personality and develop good habits in labor production. Perceived ethical climate and opportunities for rule bending are potential antecedents of white-collar crimes. Ordinary citizens are now being impacted by cybercrime even though they are not the intended target. Left-wing extremists in the United Kingdom do not behave in the same manner as conventional criminals. Refugees are more prone to radicalization than non-refugees because of their necessity to belong and to be accepted by a welcoming society. Cannabis policy, especially in its ethnic-racial dimensions, has become symbolic of broader anxieties about cultural and agricultural change in the United States. Considering the dangerous traits associated with psychopathy and the ability to commit any crime if it benefits them, the Criminal Justice System should take psychopathy diagnosis into account. Given the physiological changes that accompany aging, current prisons are not fully equipped to handle the health and care concerns of elderly inmates. The retributive justification for punishment maintains that punishment of a wrongdoer is justified. Selected criminals and non-criminals were tested in India for their tendencies of pro-social behavior and Grit but no significant differences emerged between the two groups.

TEN FREE REFERENCES FROM THE INTERNET — … buy this booklet from Amazon …

“Ten Problems for Justice in the 2020s” booklet for Amazon Kindle, 2020; click on the cover to go to the dedicated Amazon listing page

By TenProblems

Literature Reviews for Inquisitive Minds