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Justice

Justice problem: Drugs

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Literature Review: Drugs problem for Justice

This “Ten Problems for Justice in the 2020s” booklet identifies ten relevant areas from very recent contributions put forward at academic level in the form journal articles, conference proceedings and students theses. Ten freely accessible internet references have been selected for each area and direct links are provided at the end of each chapter for own consultation. Our selected references do not intend to mirror ranking indexes nor establish novel classifications. On the contrary, they are meant to represent peer-reviewed, diverse and scientifically-sound case studies for vertical dissemination aimed at non-specialist readers. They will also be able to scoop even more references through the bibliography that is reported at the end of each selected reference.

Without further ado, these are the ten problems that we are going to introduce in this booklet:

  1. policies, 
  2. criminal,
  3. financial,
  4. drugs,
  5. environmental,
  6. violence,
  7. family,
  8. open access,
  9. artificial intelligence,
  10. diversity.

Each problem has its own dedicated chapter made of an introductory section, a short presentation of the ten selected references and a conclusions section.

The final chapter of this booklet will report the conclusions from each chapter again in order to provide a complete executive summary.


4 Drugs

THE PROBLEM — Drug markets are evolving at unprecedented speed. Broader international cooperation to advance balanced and integrated health and criminal justice responses to drug supply and demand is needed. If drug market regulation will result in better control of organized crime is likely to depend on what decisions policy-makers will take. Gangs and more organized drug-trafficking cartels always start from local markets and minor offences before gaining criminal traction.

CASE STUDIES — … buy this booklet from Amazon …

CONCLUSIONS — The range of substances and combinations available to users has never been wider, and the amounts produced have never been greater. Prevention and treatment continue to fall far short of needs in many parts of the world. Regulation might create opportunities to better fight organized crime, but policy-makers are likely to be confronted with a range of sometimes uncomfortable choices. Observables of illegal substances are not consumption but yearly apprehensions and offenses, which contain both consumption and repression information. Once engaged in Young Crime Gangs, young people tend to become increasingly motivated by financial gain In the form of bulk-buying and distribution of drugs. Violence has moved from an expressive means of reinforcing gang identity to being increasingly used as an instrumental means of protecting business. The disruption and dismantlement of a drug organization is a very complex operation that begins with investigative and intelligence activities by federal agents and culminates in federal prosecution of the parties involved. Beyond the design of the intervention, the needs analysis suggests the importance of community preparation and priming of potential participants. Violence in Mexico has become diversified over the past decade, with drug trafficking groups becoming involved in widespread extortion of legal businesses, kidnapping, illegal logging, illegal fishing, and smuggling of migrants. The final roost of suburban white flight, exurbia also formed via the spatial–racial dynamics of the drug war.

TEN FREE REFERENCES FROM THE INTERNET — … buy this booklet from Amazon …


Justice
“Ten Problems for Justice in the 2020s” booklet for Amazon Kindle, 2020; click on the cover to go to the dedicated Amazon listing page

By TenProblems

Literature Reviews for Inquisitive Minds