Justice problem: Policies

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Literature Review: Policies problem for Justice

This “Ten Problems for Justice in the 2020s” booklet identifies ten relevant areas from very recent contributions put forward at academic level in the form journal articles, conference proceedings and students theses. Ten freely accessible internet references have been selected for each area and direct links are provided at the end of each chapter for own consultation. Our selected references do not intend to mirror ranking indexes nor establish novel classifications. On the contrary, they are meant to represent peer-reviewed, diverse and scientifically-sound case studies for vertical dissemination aimed at non-specialist readers. They will also be able to scoop even more references through the bibliography that is reported at the end of each selected reference.

Without further ado, these are the ten problems that we are going to introduce in this booklet:

  1. policies, 
  2. criminal,
  3. financial,
  4. drugs,
  5. environmental,
  6. violence,
  7. family,
  8. open access,
  9. artificial intelligence,
  10. diversity.

Each problem has its own dedicated chapter made of an introductory section, a short presentation of the ten selected references and a conclusions section.

The final chapter of this booklet will report the conclusions from each chapter again in order to provide a complete executive summary.

1 Policies

THE PROBLEM — The fraction of the United States population behind bars remains historically high. Local zoning codes and land use policies historically have been tools for segregating people and concentrating pollution in low-income communities and communities of color. Social justice only can be understood in light of its particular history. New insecurities have arisen, which existing welfare state arrangements are not in a position to adequately tackle.

CASE STUDIES — … buy this booklet from Amazon

CONCLUSIONS — The punishing effects of American criminal justice have become pervasive in communities challenged by racial inequality, poverty, and violence. Land use and zoning approaches can be undertaken by cities to tackle the distributive, procedural, and structural manifestations of environmental injustice expressed in the built environment. It is by recovering the original liberal impulse to place individual freedom in the context of the common good that social justice might be appropriately conceived. Over recent years, universal basic income has become an important reference point when discussing innovative basic income policies. The implications of the unequal distribution of unpaid care work are far-reaching: women are more vulnerable to violence and harassment at work, to low and unequal pay, to lack of voice and representation. Youth justice systems should aim to reduce the number of children in the system; to reduce reoffending; to improve the safety and wellbeing of children in the system; and to improve outcomes. Evidence on the consequences of transitional justice remains mixed and amenable to contradictory interpretations. Restorative justice practices lead to an overall reduction in disciplinary action. The over-reliance on penal controls is viewed as an adaptation to the weakness of non-penal social controls in American communities. Because of drug trafficking-related activities, violence has spread from the border with the United States to Mexico’s interior.

TEN FREE REFERENCES FROM THE INTERNET — … buy this booklet from Amazon

“Ten Problems for Justice in the 2020s” booklet for Amazon Kindle, 2020; click on the cover to go to the dedicated Amazon listing page

By TenProblems

Literature Reviews for Inquisitive Minds