Nuclear problem: Accidents

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Literature Review: Accidents problem for Nuclear

This “Ten Problems for Nuclear in the 2020s” booklet identifies ten relevant areas from very recent contributions put forward at academic level in the form journal articles, conference proceedings and students theses. Ten freely accessible internet references have been selected for each area and direct links are provided at the end of each chapter for own consultation. Our selected references do not intend to mirror ranking indexes nor establish novel classifications. On the contrary, they are meant to represent peer-reviewed, diverse and scientifically-sound case studies for vertical dissemination aimed at non-specialist readers. They will also be able to scoop even more references through the bibliography that is reported at the end of each selected reference.

Without further ado, these are the ten problems that we are going to introduce in this booklet:

  1. cost, 
  2. climate change,
  3. fission,
  4. fusion,
  5. waste,
  6. security,
  7. proliferation,
  8. accidents,
  9. applications,
  10. outer space.

Each problem has its own dedicated chapter made of an introductory section, a short presentation of the ten selected references and a conclusions section.

The final chapter of this booklet will report the conclusions from each chapter again in order to provide a complete executive summary.

8 Accidents

THE PROBLEM — The vast amount of radioactive fission products that accumulate during operation of a nuclear reactor have the potential to render large areas inhabitable. Also, interest in the risk of adverse health effects due to radiation exposure at low doses (<100 mGy) and low-dose rates intensified markedly following Japan’s 2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident. Metrics suitable for the resilience assessment of nuclear reactors can help assess accident scenarios in order to mitigate their consequences.

CASE STUDIES — … buy this booklet from Amazon …

CONCLUSIONS — The experiences of the Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear accidents showed that dosimetry was the essential tool in the emergency situation for decision making processes, such as evacuation and application of protective measures. The Chernobyl accident in 1986 was overall 5-10 times worse than the Fukushima accident in 2011. Currently, there is little or no epidemiological data supporting any direct relationship between radiation exposure from the Fukushima accident in 2011 and severe congenital anomalies in humans. Two nuclear safety directives issued by the European Commission emphasize the fundamental principle of national responsibility for nuclear safety and are implemented in each member country’s legislation. The probability of core damage is the most suitable metric to fully capture the complexity of the nuclear power plant system and measure its resilience. It must be noted the absence of procedures that make it possible to assess, in an integrated manner, the interdependence of economic and technological factors. A radiological emergency preparedness system in Korea has been developed and validated by model-to-model comparisons and measurements from the Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents. An emergency evacuation in a densely populated area may face much more difficult issues than an emergency evacuation in past nuclear accidents. The safety assessment in site selection for a new nuclear power plant could be improved by predicting the consequences for a hypothetical accident. A better understanding of individuals’ knowledge of how to respond in the event of a nuclear emergency is paramount.

TEN FREE REFERENCES FROM THE INTERNET — … buy this booklet from Amazon …

“Ten Problems for Nuclear in the 2020s” booklet for Amazon Kindle, 2020; click on the cover to go to the dedicated Amazon listing page

booklet updated on 20 Jul 2021, now on sale as version 1.1

By TenProblems

Literature Reviews for Inquisitive Minds