Nuclear problem: Fusion

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Literature Review: Fusion problem for Nuclear

This “Ten Problems for Nuclear in the 2020s” booklet identifies ten relevant areas from very recent contributions put forward at academic level in the form journal articles, conference proceedings and students theses. Ten freely accessible internet references have been selected for each area and direct links are provided at the end of each chapter for own consultation. Our selected references do not intend to mirror ranking indexes nor establish novel classifications. On the contrary, they are meant to represent peer-reviewed, diverse and scientifically-sound case studies for vertical dissemination aimed at non-specialist readers. They will also be able to scoop even more references through the bibliography that is reported at the end of each selected reference.

Without further ado, these are the ten problems that we are going to introduce in this booklet:

  1. cost, 
  2. climate change,
  3. fission,
  4. fusion,
  5. waste,
  6. security,
  7. proliferation,
  8. accidents,
  9. applications,
  10. outer space.

Each problem has its own dedicated chapter made of an introductory section, a short presentation of the ten selected references and a conclusions section.

The final chapter of this booklet will report the conclusions from each chapter again in order to provide a complete executive summary.

4 Fusion

THE PROBLEM — For all the activity and investment, fusion power remains as tough a problem as ever. ITER or International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, located in France on the Cadarache site, is currently the biggest international fusion research and development collaboration. Progress in technological fields such as high-temperature superconductors, additive manufacturing, and innovative materials is leading to new scenarios and to a second generation of fusion reactor designs.

CASE STUDIES — … buy this booklet from Amazon …

CONCLUSIONS — Over the past several years, more than two dozen research groups, impressively staffed and well-funded startups, university programs, and corporate projects, have achieved eye-opening advances in controlled nuclear fusion. The behavior of gas, helium and hydrogen, in structural fusion materials is a key and unique (to fusion) issue. The highest-performance approach towards steady-state fusion is ITER, a doughnut-shaped magnetic confinement configuration known as the tokamak, as evidenced by the joint international effort to build a power-plant-scale experiment. Disparate length- and timescales involved in many aspects of inertial fusion research makes them both challenging for physicists. Global mega projects like ITER, based on science and technology, embrace global cooperation, accountability, meritocracy and broad as well as democratic participation. The current ITER divertor design may not work properly and may require significant modifications or new innovative design to prevent serious damage and to ensure successful operation. By mixing elements with favorable nuclear activation properties to create high-entropy alloys, it may be possible to create a material that can withstand a nuclear fusion environment while minimizing the radioactive waste produced. Regressive disentanglement variational auto-encoders show tremendous potential in several applications for tokamak research. Fusion installations are expected mainly in the countries with limited-potentials of zero-emission energy sources, such as Japan, Korea, and Turkey. Concurrent with the increased number of patent filings in the Low Temperature Nuclear Fusion category, private capital is moving to do what federal funds wouldn’t.

TEN FREE REFERENCES FROM THE INTERNET — … buy this booklet from Amazon …

“Ten Problems for Nuclear in the 2020s” booklet for Amazon Kindle, 2020; click on the cover to go to the dedicated Amazon listing page

booklet updated on 20 Jul 2021, now on sale as version 1.1

By TenProblems

Literature Reviews for Inquisitive Minds