Nuclear problem: Proliferation

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Literature Review: Proliferation problem for Nuclear

This “Ten Problems for Nuclear in the 2020s” booklet identifies ten relevant areas from very recent contributions put forward at academic level in the form journal articles, conference proceedings and students theses. Ten freely accessible internet references have been selected for each area and direct links are provided at the end of each chapter for own consultation. Our selected references do not intend to mirror ranking indexes nor establish novel classifications. On the contrary, they are meant to represent peer-reviewed, diverse and scientifically-sound case studies for vertical dissemination aimed at non-specialist readers. They will also be able to scoop even more references through the bibliography that is reported at the end of each selected reference.

Without further ado, these are the ten problems that we are going to introduce in this booklet:

  1. cost, 
  2. climate change,
  3. fission,
  4. fusion,
  5. waste,
  6. security,
  7. proliferation,
  8. accidents,
  9. applications,
  10. outer space.

Each problem has its own dedicated chapter made of an introductory section, a short presentation of the ten selected references and a conclusions section.

The final chapter of this booklet will report the conclusions from each chapter again in order to provide a complete executive summary.

7 Proliferation

THE PROBLEM — In the next decade, it is all too likely that the past success of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty in preventing the further spread of nuclear weapons among the world’s nations will be reversed. Cold War deterrence strategy was based on a balance of terror or mutual assured destruction, but the 21st Century contains new threats, new actors, not so easily deterred.

CASE STUDIES — … buy this booklet from Amazon …

CONCLUSIONS — There are reasons to worry about proliferation or hedging, a strategy whereby countries develop nuclear capabilities to have a bomb “option” but stop short of building a weapon. The International Atomic Energy Agency uses verification and monitoring expertise to enhance the confidence of the international community that other nuclear non-proliferation arrangements are being implemented satisfactorily. Scientific knowledge, once acquired, can be misused to military ends, as it has been proven with Pakistan’s case. While nuclear deterrence remains important, regional powers armed with weapons of mass destruction and accompanying long-range delivery capabilities are a rising concern. Since the initiation of war against terrorism, terrorists are backtracking from conventional terrorism and are vying to seek biological, chemical or nuclear weapons. The United States no longer produces highly enriched uranium or plutonium for use in nuclear weapons, although Department of Energy continues to reuse materials removed from retired weapons. India and Pakistan rivalry creates fear of inadvertent and deliberate nuclear war. Brazil, South Korea and Iran’s interest in naval reactors brings with it two challenges to the Non-Proliferation Treaty. A demonstration prototype system that uses multiple machine learning methods on large-scale open data sources to identify undeclared nuclear programs is being developed in the United States. Nuclear security is a key aspect of nuclear nonproliferation and within the field of space nuclear reactors.

TEN FREE REFERENCES FROM THE INTERNET — … buy this booklet from Amazon …

“Ten Problems for Nuclear in the 2020s” booklet for Amazon Kindle, 2020; click on the cover to go to the dedicated Amazon listing page

booklet updated on 20 Jul 2021, now on sale as version 1.1

By TenProblems

Literature Reviews for Inquisitive Minds