Nuclear problem: Waste

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Literature Review: Waste problem for Nuclear

This “Ten Problems for Nuclear in the 2020s” booklet identifies ten relevant areas from very recent contributions put forward at academic level in the form journal articles, conference proceedings and students theses. Ten freely accessible internet references have been selected for each area and direct links are provided at the end of each chapter for own consultation. Our selected references do not intend to mirror ranking indexes nor establish novel classifications. On the contrary, they are meant to represent peer-reviewed, diverse and scientifically-sound case studies for vertical dissemination aimed at non-specialist readers. They will also be able to scoop even more references through the bibliography that is reported at the end of each selected reference.

Without further ado, these are the ten problems that we are going to introduce in this booklet:

  1. cost, 
  2. climate change,
  3. fission,
  4. fusion,
  5. waste,
  6. security,
  7. proliferation,
  8. accidents,
  9. applications,
  10. outer space.

Each problem has its own dedicated chapter made of an introductory section, a short presentation of the ten selected references and a conclusions section.

The final chapter of this booklet will report the conclusions from each chapter again in order to provide a complete executive summary.

5 Waste

THE PROBLEM — The safe, secure and sustainable management of spent fuel from nuclear power reactors is key to the future of nuclear energy, from temporary storage to final disposal or partial reprocessing. The specific risks of nuclear waste require a safe enclosure for up to one million years and disposal strategies promise the possibility of retrieval and recovery at least for a limited period. Improved models are still needed for assessing materials corrosion in long-term post-closure disposal conditions.

CASE STUDIES — … buy this booklet from Amazon …

CONCLUSIONS — Both developed (for example, EU countries) and developing countries (Russia) are gradually switching to the use of nuclear fuel waste reprocessing models. On the other side, US and Russian repository design strategies are highly distinct. In recent years, nuclear waste management in ceramics (e.g., synthetic rocks) has been one of the best options for immobilization. Maintaining the low solubility of radionuclides in the geochemical environment of groundwater systems is an effective way to retard the release of radionuclides. Dismantling nuclear facilities leads to radioactive may have higher variable compositions compared to the high-level radioactive wastes recovered after the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. A wide range of geological disposal facilities designs have been investigated and developed internationally, tailored to suit specific waste types and geological conditions. Yucca Mountain has shown that simply “following up” to reduce uncertainty may not be adequate to build a nuclear repository, as larger surprises or “show-stopping” processes may present themselves. All corrosion processes in vapor or liquid water that potentially affect the waste form performance must have the reasonable assumption that water could exist and induce corrosion in the repository. A key, nearly unique, characteristic of nuclear energy is that spent fuel may be reprocessed to recover fissile materials to provide fresh fuel for existing and future nuclear installations. The long-lived Higher Activity Waste due to the European Sodium Fast Reactor fuel poses a significant waste disposal challenge that the DEMO fusion reactor prototype does not face.

TEN FREE REFERENCES FROM THE INTERNET — … buy this booklet from Amazon …

“Ten Problems for Nuclear in the 2020s” booklet for Amazon Kindle, 2020; click on the cover to go to the dedicated Amazon listing page

booklet updated on 20 Jul 2021, now on sale as version 1.1

By TenProblems

Literature Reviews for Inquisitive Minds