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Materials

Materials problem: Biomaterials

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Literature Review: Biomaterials problem for Materials

This “Ten Problems for Materials in the 2020s” booklet identifies ten relevant areas from very recent contributions put forward at academic level in the form journal articles, conference proceedings and students theses. Ten freely accessible internet references have been selected for each area and direct links are provided at the end of each chapter for own consultation. Our selected references do not intend to mirror ranking indexes nor establish novel classifications. On the contrary, they are meant to represent peer-reviewed, diverse and scientifically-sound case studies for vertical dissemination aimed at non-specialist readers. They will also be able to scoop even more references through the bibliography that is reported at the end of each selected reference.

Without further ado, these are the ten problems that we are going to introduce in this booklet:

  1. research, 
  2. composites,
  3. metals,
  4. plastics,
  5. glass-ceramics,
  6. biomaterials,
  7. additive,
  8. nanomaterials,
  9. self-healing,
  10. informatics.

Each problem has its own dedicated chapter made of an introductory section, a short presentation of the ten selected references and a conclusions section.

The final chapter of this booklet will report the conclusions from each chapter again in order to provide a complete executive summary.


6 Biomaterials

THE PROBLEM — The development of new biomaterials, new manufacturing methods and techniques is very important for medical devices. Decreasing the number of inappropriate biomaterials reaching clinic is a target. For many innovative cases, manufacturing and geometrical design are still challenging.

CASE STUDIES — … buy this booklet from Amazon …

CONCLUSIONS — The four major types of biomaterials are metal, polymer, ceramic, and composites. Degradable biomaterials have emerged as a promising type of medical materials because of their unique advantages of biocompatibility, biodegradability and biosafety. Given the seemingly pivotal role that immune responses play in the clinical outcomes for novel biomaterials, in vitro immune response assessment can help improve patient safety. Meta-biomaterials are designer biomaterials with unusual and even unprecedented properties that primarily originate from their geometrical designs at different (usually smaller) length scales. Of all materials that can be used in the human body, Ti-based materials are still the most desirable, because they provide an optimum combination of mechanical, chemical and biological properties. Strategies are now arising that use bioactive materials to promote cardiac regeneration by promoting angiogenesis and inhibiting cardiac fibrosis. The perfect biomaterial for spinal implant would be one that is biologically inert / compatible, has a Young’s modulus similar to that of the bone where it is implanted, high tensile strength, stiffness, fatigue strength, and low artifacts on imaging. Recent studies investigate hybrid approaches, creating complex materials that can reduce inflammation or provide neuroprotection in addition to stimulating nervous growth and regeneration. Biopolymers are the most promising materials in the field of artificial bones. Electrospun biopolymer nanofibers have potential applications for wound dressing based upon their unique properties.

TEN FREE REFERENCES FROM THE INTERNET — … buy this booklet from Amazon …


Materials
“Ten Problems for Materials in the 2020s” booklet for Amazon Kindle, 2020; click on the cover to go to the dedicated Amazon listing page

By TenProblems

Literature Reviews for Inquisitive Minds