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Materials

Materials problem: Metals

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Literature Review: Metals problem for Materials

This “Ten Problems for Materials in the 2020s” booklet identifies ten relevant areas from very recent contributions put forward at academic level in the form journal articles, conference proceedings and students theses. Ten freely accessible internet references have been selected for each area and direct links are provided at the end of each chapter for own consultation. Our selected references do not intend to mirror ranking indexes nor establish novel classifications. On the contrary, they are meant to represent peer-reviewed, diverse and scientifically-sound case studies for vertical dissemination aimed at non-specialist readers. They will also be able to scoop even more references through the bibliography that is reported at the end of each selected reference.

Without further ado, these are the ten problems that we are going to introduce in this booklet:

  1. research, 
  2. composites,
  3. metals,
  4. plastics,
  5. glass-ceramics,
  6. biomaterials,
  7. additive,
  8. nanomaterials,
  9. self-healing,
  10. informatics.

Each problem has its own dedicated chapter made of an introductory section, a short presentation of the ten selected references and a conclusions section.

The final chapter of this booklet will report the conclusions from each chapter again in order to provide a complete executive summary.


3 Metals

THE PROBLEM — Elements can be arranged conveniently in the Periodic Table and described as metals, non-metals, and metalloids. Since 2000, there are signs of a slowdown in the mining industry and the environmental impacts related to metal production are expected to increase steeply. Several industries are being innovated by the emergence of novel metallic alloys and applications.

CASE STUDIES — … buy this booklet from Amazon …

CONCLUSIONS — The annual production of iron and steel in one year exceeds the production of all other metals combined in about ten years. The ability to achieve substantial new gains in the mining industry is diminishing, though. Iron is responsible for the majority of impacts and emissions are relatively unaffected by changes in the production and energy system. According to current knowledge, 60 of the elements in the Periodic Table are elements contained in human body but only about 20 of these are considered to be essential for life and 10 are metals. A topological semimetal or metal can exist in an amorphous system with completely random sites, such as glass materials, where the desired translational symmetry is absent. Metallic ground states in a variety of two-dimensional electronic systems behave as if they were failed superconductor. Implants prepared with biodegradable metals are significantly stronger than their polymer counterparts. 3D printing technology combined with scanning and imaging technologies is changing the supply chain of the existing medical industry. The advanced low-enriched uranium project from the United States aims to offer a candidate low-enriched uranium fuel system that meets nuclear reactor performance requirements. NASA’s In-Space Manufacturing project seeks to develop the materials, processes, and manufacturing technologies needed to provide an on-demand manufacturing capability for deep space exploration missions.

TEN FREE REFERENCES FROM THE INTERNET — … buy this booklet from Amazon …


Materials
“Ten Problems for Materials in the 2020s” booklet for Amazon Kindle, 2020; click on the cover to go to the dedicated Amazon listing page

By TenProblems

Literature Reviews for Inquisitive Minds