Materials problem: Plastics

++ All booklets now selling at 70% discount and fully available for free through the KDP unlimited circuit. Get them while it lasts!

Tailored content can be provided upon request. Submit your technical specification through the contact form in the About page at and get your quote.

Literature Review: Plastics problem for Materials

This “Ten Problems for Materials in the 2020s” booklet identifies ten relevant areas from very recent contributions put forward at academic level in the form journal articles, conference proceedings and students theses. Ten freely accessible internet references have been selected for each area and direct links are provided at the end of each chapter for own consultation. Our selected references do not intend to mirror ranking indexes nor establish novel classifications. On the contrary, they are meant to represent peer-reviewed, diverse and scientifically-sound case studies for vertical dissemination aimed at non-specialist readers. They will also be able to scoop even more references through the bibliography that is reported at the end of each selected reference.

Without further ado, these are the ten problems that we are going to introduce in this booklet:

  1. research, 
  2. composites,
  3. metals,
  4. plastics,
  5. glass-ceramics,
  6. biomaterials,
  7. additive,
  8. nanomaterials,
  9. self-healing,
  10. informatics.

Each problem has its own dedicated chapter made of an introductory section, a short presentation of the ten selected references and a conclusions section.

The final chapter of this booklet will report the conclusions from each chapter again in order to provide a complete executive summary.

4 Plastics

THE PROBLEM — The final resting place, within strata currently forming, and longevity of plastics remain an open question. Also, it is not possible to univocally demonstrate whether microplastic contamination poses a risk to the marine environment yet. A mix of policy instruments and approaches will be required to incentivize design of more sustainable plastics. Plastic packaging accounts for 36% of all plastics made, but amounts to 47% of all plastic waste. Bioplastics will be a new plastics generation.

CASE STUDIES — … buy this booklet from Amazon …

CONCLUSIONS — As plastics enter the geological cycle they undergo phases of transport, modification, deposition, and burial and subsequent modification and/or exhumation. There is still a long way to go to perform evidence-based decision-making with respect to exposure, effects, and risks posed by microplastic in the marine environment. Studies show that no wastewater treatment method leads to a complete retention of microplastics. Improvements to the design stage of plastics can help to reduce risks imposed by plastics to human health and to the environment and support the circularity of plastics. Airborne microplastics are of great concern, because they are an important contributor to microplastics in other environmental compartments such as water and soils and may pose potential risk to human health via inhalation or dust ingestion. A curbing in the use of plastic materials in the first place, particularly from single-use packaging, is demanded. Materials with lower environmental impact, for use in the construction industry, should incorporate criteria of environmental sustainability. Plastics encompass a high calorific value, which makes plastics a material that is highly desired for incineration processes. Renewable raw materials such as corn, potato, or plants are used to manufacture bioplastics. The pre-treatment of recycled material at local level would connect the Distributed Recycling via Additive Manufacturing concept with the circular economy ambition at micro, meso and macro level.

TEN FREE REFERENCES FROM THE INTERNET — … buy this booklet from Amazon …

“Ten Problems for Materials in the 2020s” booklet for Amazon Kindle, 2020; click on the cover to go to the dedicated Amazon listing page

By TenProblems

Literature Reviews for Inquisitive Minds