Safety problem: Pandemics

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Literature Review: Pandemics problem for Safety

This “Ten Problems for Safety in the 2020s” booklet identifies ten relevant areas from very recent contributions put forward at academic level in the form journal articles, conference proceedings and students’ theses. Ten freely accessible internet references have been selected for each area and direct links are provided at the end of each chapter for own consultation. Our selected references do not intend to mirror ranking indexes nor establish novel classifications. On the contrary, they are meant to represent peer-reviewed, diverse and scientifically-sound case studies for vertical dissemination aimed at non-specialist readers. They will also be able to scoop even more references through the bibliography that is reported at the end of each selected reference.

Without further ado, these are the ten problems that we are going to introduce in this booklet:

  1. machines,
  2. internet,
  3. pandemics,
  4. resources,
  5. financial,
  6. borders,
  7. terrorism,
  8. infrastructures,
  9. disasters,
  10. food.

Each problem has its own dedicated chapter made of an introductory section, a short presentation of the ten selected references and a conclusions section.

The final chapter of this booklet will report the conclusions from each chapter again in order to provide a complete executive summary.

3 Pandemics

THE PROBLEM — Diseases, epidemics, and pandemics have occurred throughout history. There is growing evidence that the collective menace makes us more socially supportive and cooperative. Improvements in antivirals and novel vaccine formulations are critical in lessening the impact of both pandemic and seasonal influenza.

CASE STUDIES — … buy this booklet from Amazon …

CONCLUSIONS — Nearly all emerging and infectious diseases originate through human interactions with the environment. The current COVID-19 crisis is reopening some of the core questioning of psychology: how do humans behave in response to threat? Past pandemics have repeatedly underscored, for example, the vulnerability of groups such as pregnant women and taught other lessons valuable for future preparedness. Current COVID-19 pandemic is very similar to Spanish, Hong Kong, Asian and swine influenza pandemics in terms of spreading to world by the mobilized people. Stringency measures matter less if individuals are more patient and altruistic, and exhibit less negative reciprocity. Environmental science and engineering specialists have to adopt a larger, long-term, and more quantitative strategy to comprehend viruses that are diffusing through nature. The COVID-19 pandemic paralyzed the world and revealed the critical importance of supply chain management. Significant macroeconomic after-effects of pandemics persist for decades, with real rates of return substantially depressed, in stark contrast to what happens after wars. Countries will not wish to expand trade to a level where they are vulnerable in the event of trade disruption. The regional or global nature and associated fear and uncertainty of pandemics provide an enabling environment that may exacerbate or spark diverse forms of violence against women and children.

TEN FREE REFERENCES FROM THE INTERNET — … buy this booklet from Amazon …

“Ten Problems for Safety in the 2020s” booklet for Amazon Kindle, 2020; click on the cover to go to the dedicated Amazon listing page

By TenProblems

Literature Reviews for Inquisitive Minds