Ten Problems for Climate in the 2020s

Booklet updated on 17 Jun 2022, now on sale as version 2.0

Tailored content can be provided upon request. Submit your technical specification through the contact form in the About page at and get your quote.

Literature Review: Climate Problems for the 2020s

In the last five years, the knowledge base on observed and projected impacts and risks generated by climate hazards, exposure and vulnerability has increased with impacts attributed to climate change and key risks identified. Impacts and risks can be expressed in terms of their damages, harms, economic, and non-economic losses, as projected for the near-term (2021–2040), the mid (2041–2060) and long term (2081–2100), at different global warming levels and for pathways that overshoot 1.5°C global warming level for multiple decades [1].

Extreme weather and climate related events cause fatalities, injuries and displacement. Indicator-based assessment of risks and needs are used for humanitarian and development aid operations. These assessments are often based on historical observations or present-day hazard conditions. The INFORM Risk Index includes future projections of climate change-altered hazards (floods and droughts) and exposed population, using projections based on high-emissions (RCP8.5) and high socioeconomic global change (SSP3) scenarios for the mid-21st century [2].

Nature-based Solutions (NbS) have been identified as unique and effective ways to support disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation while also contributing to multiple societal goals, including improvements in human health and well-being, food and water security, and greenhouse gas emissions reductions. However, NbS are far from reaching their full potential, with initiatives remaining largely small-scale and project based. Faced with the scale of the climate crisis, countries need to start investing in transformational NbS to better manage the ever-increasing risk of disasters [3].

Starting from such general references, this booklet identifies ten relevant issues, as put forward at academic level in the form of recent journal articles, conference proceedings or students’ theses. Four freely accessible internet references have been selected for each issue and direct links are provided at the end of each chapter for own consultation. Our references neither intend to mirror ranking indexes nor establish novel classifications. On the contrary, they are meant to represent peer-reviewed, scientifically-sound case studies for dissemination aimed at non-specialist readers. They will also offer even more references through their own bibliography list.

Without further ado, these are the “Ten Problems for Climate in the 2020s” that we are going to introduce in this booklet:

  1. energy policies,
  2. effects,
  3. machine learning,
  4. communication,
  5. non-state actors,
  6. social sciences,
  7. green infrastructures,
  8. mitigation,
  9. regional environments,
  10. economics.

Each problem has its own dedicated chapter made of an introduction, a snippet from the 1st edition of this booklet, a short presentation of four new case studies, a conclusions section and the references list with links.

The final chapter of this booklet will report the conclusions from each chapter, again, in order to provide a complete executive summary.


[1] Portner, H.O. et al. IPCC, 2022: Summary for Policymakers. In: Climate Change 2022: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Sixth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press. In Press.

[2] Marzi, S. et al. INFORM Climate Change: Projecting Effects of Climate Change on the INFORM Risk Index.  UN Office for Disaster Risk Reduction. 2022.

[3] Lambertini, M. et al., Working With Nature to Protect People. IFRC and WWF. 2022.

Climate problems
“Ten Problems for Climate in the 2020s” booklet for Amazon Kindle, 2022; click on the cover to go to the dedicated Amazon listing page
carbon footprint, greenhouse effect, pollution levels, renewable energy